Top 04 Renaissance in science
The development of scientific state of mind was an important gift of the Renaissance era. Scientific mind: state or consciousness means not accepting any work-cause relationship in the natural and human world without proof or accomplishment. In medieval Europe, statements of Christian theology and religious leaders were believed to be self-evident truths, blindly believed, and superstition and magical practices were dominated. People were engrossed in mystic religious activities to improve the hereafter, rather than being interviewed by this world or direct world.
The Renaissance era has witnessed the emergence of certain trends that paved the way for the development of scientific consciousness. Due to contact with the eastern countries through the Crusades, liberal consciousness spread in Europe. Economic changes and commercial prosperity created a class that rejected religious control of the church. The Protestant Reformation reform movement challenged traditional religious control that had been in place for centuries, and drew attention to the freedom of the individual’s rational consciousness. Humanist consciousness, the renaissance and the development of the beginning of the modern era hurt at the roots of fatalism and superstition. The idea of free and eternal possibilities of human development, due to human infatuation and work-cause, motivated man in the direction of rational and rational thinking. Due to the new changes, the structure of feudalism and its root mentality started to crumble. New ideas came from geographical research of new areas. All the above reasons were instrumental to scientific progress in the Renaissance era.
(01) Theoretical promoter of new scientific consciousness
Scalistic thinkers in Europe — Abelard (1079 1142) and Thomas Aquinaz (1224–1274) first highlighted the importance of reasoning in place of superstition, although in the background they were intended to prove religious statements. But Roger Bacon (1215–1294), for the first time, in very clear terms, demonstrated the importance of independent use of the individual’s rational and rational-minded state of mind; His statements contained clear sources of scientific consciousness. In one of his lectures at the University of Paris, he stated that ‘by experiment only one can gain knowledge of natural, chemical, pharmaceutical, virtually everything on heaven and earth.’ Roger Bacon posited some scientific theories that expressed the possibility of inventing motor, airplane and steamer. Roger Bacon’s statements were considered dangerous in that period and he was jailed. In later thinkers, Francis Bacon (1561–1626) underscored the importance of scientific consciousness in more explicit terms. According to him, for the attainment of knowledge, it is very important to know the work-cause relationship by testing and experimenting. In his book The Advancement of Learning, he stressed the need for the study of natural and physical sciences. According to Dankart (1596–1650) ‘We should not easily believe anything, first we should look at it with suspicion.’ Of course, the state of mind is necessary for the development of scientific consciousness, as Dankart’s contribution is very important.
(02) Geography and Astronomy
In the field of astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus of Poland (1473–1543) made a revolutionary discovery. Earlier, in all schools of Christianity, the ‘geocentric’ theory of the universe propounded by the Talmudy was taught as the ultimate truth. According to the ‘geocentric’ theory, the earth was located in the center of the universe and the sun, stars and planets revolve around it. Based on the long-term observations of celestial bodies at his observatory, Kaepernickus in his book, “On the Revolution of Celestial Bodies”, presented the ‘heliocentric’ theory of the universe, according to Copernicus’s theory that the sun is at the center of the universe. , Earth revolves around it in a circular circumference, other planets also revolve around the Sun. Copernicus also told that the Earth revolves on its axis. Many religious officials criticized Copernicus’ theory as contrary to the teachings of the Bible.
German astronomer John Kepler (1571–1630) supported Copernicus ‘findings and presented mathematical rules to prove them. John Kepler made an important modification of Copernicus’ theory, according to Kepler, of the circular circumference around the Earth and other planets. But not in the elliptical periphery. The credit for the final corroboration of Copernicus’s findings is to the Italian astronomer Galileo (1564–1642) who invented a far-sighted telescope in space, with the help of which he studied celestial bodies and their motion. Galileo published a book in support of the doctrines of Copernicus, which was declared anti-religious and Galileo was sued and his book burned. Galileo was acquitted of the trial when he withdrew his principles. Giordano Bruno (1548–1600), another Italian scientist, also supported the findings of Copernicus, the beginning of the Renaissance and the modern era, but did not withdraw his views. By the church